So, How Much of the Earth's Surface Is Covered by Rain Gauges?

Kidd, Chris ; Becker, Andreas ; Huffman, George J. ; Muller, Catherine L. ; Joe, Paul ; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail ; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.

Année de publication
2017
Résumé
The measurement of global precipitation, both rainfall and snowfall, is critical to a wide range of users and applications. Rain gauges are indispensable in the measurement of precipitation, remaining the de facto standard for precipitation information across Earth’s surface for hydrometeorological purposes. However, their distribution across the globe is limited: over land their distribution and density is variable, while over oceans very few gauges exist and where measurements are made, they may not adequately reflect the rainfall amounts of the broader area. Critically, the number of gauges available, or appropriate for a particular study, varies greatly across the Earth owing to temporal sampling resolutions, periods of operation, data latency, and data access. Numbers of gauges range from a few thousand available in near–real time to about 100,000 for all “official” gauges, and to possibly hundreds of thousands if all possible gauges are included. Gauges routinely used in the generation of global precipitation products cover an equivalent area of between about 250 and 3,000 m2. For comparison, the center circle of a soccer pitch or tennis court is about 260 m2. Although each gauge should represent more than just the gauge orifice, autocorrelation distances of precipitation vary greatly with regime and the integration period. Assuming each Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC)–available gauge is independent and represents a surrounding area of 5-km radius, this represents only about 1% of Earth’s surface. The situation is further confounded for snowfall, which has a greater measurement uncertainty.

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