ACRIDICON-CHUVA Campaign: Studying Tropical Deep Convective Clouds and Precipitation over Amazonia Using the New German Research Aircraft HALO
Wendisch, Manfred ; Pöschl, Ulrich ; Andreae, Meinrat O. ; Machado, Luiz A. T. ; Albrecht, Rachel ; Schlager, Hans ; Rosenfeld, Daniel ; Martin, Scot T. ; Abdelmonem, Ahmed ; Afchine, Armin ; Araùjo, Alessandro C. ; Artaxo, Paulo ; Aufmhoff, Heinfried ; Barbosa, Henrique M. J. ; Borrmann, Stephan ; Braga, Ramon ; Buchholz, Bernhard ; Cecchini, Micael Amore ; Costa, Anja ; Curtius, Joachim ; Dollner, Maximilian ; Dorf, Marcel ; Dreiling, Volker ; Ebert, Volker ; Ehrlich, André ; Ewald, Florian ; Fisch, Gilberto ; Fix, Andreas ; Frank, Fabian ; Fütterer, Daniel ; Heckl, Christopher ; Heidelberg, Fabian ; Hüneke, Tilman ; Jäkel, Evelyn ; Järvinen, Emma ; Jurkat, Tina ; Kanter, Sandra ; Kästner, Udo ; Kenntner, Mareike ; Kesselmeier, Jürgen ; Klimach, Thomas ; Knecht, Matthias ; Kohl, Rebecca ; Kölling, Tobias ; Krämer, Martina ; Krüger, Mira ; Krisna, Trismono Candra ; Lavric, Jost V. ; Longo, Karla ; Mahnke, Christoph ; Manzi, Antonio O. ; Mayer, Bernhard ; Mertes, Stephan ; Minikin, Andreas ; Molleker, Sergej ; Münch, Steffen ; Nillius, Björn ; Pfeilsticker, Klaus ; Pöhlker, Christopher ; Roiger, Anke ; Rose, Diana ; Rosenow, Dagmar ; Sauer, Daniel ; Schnaiter, Martin ; Schneider, Johannes ; Schulz, Christiane ; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F. ; Spanu, Antonio ; Stock, Paul ; Vila, Daniel ; Voigt, Christiane ; Walser, Adrian ; Walter, David ; Weigel, Ralf ; Weinzierl, Bernadett ; Werner, Frank ; Yamasoe, Marcia A. ; Ziereis, Helmut ; Zinner, Tobias ; Zöger, Martin
Année de publication
Between 1 September and 4 October 2014, a combined airborne and ground-based measurement campaign was conducted to study tropical deep convective clouds over the Brazilian Amazon rain forest. The new German research aircraft, High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO), a modified Gulfstream G550, and extensive ground-based instrumentation were deployed in and near Manaus (State of Amazonas). The campaign was part of the German–Brazilian Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems–Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud Resolving Modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) (ACRIDICON– CHUVA) venture to quantify aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions and their thermodynamic, dynamic, and radiative effects by in situ and remote sensing measurements over Amazonia. The ACRIDICON–CHUVA field observations were carried out in cooperation with the second intensive operating period of Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon2014/5). In this paper we focus on the airborne data measured on HALO, which was equipped with about 30 in situ and remote sensing instruments for meteorological, trace gas, aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and spectral solar radiation measurements. Fourteen research flights with a total duration of 96 flight hours were performed. Five scientific topics were pursued: 1) cloud vertical evolution and life cycle (cloud profiling), 2) cloud processing of aerosol particles and trace gases (inflow and outflow), 3) satellite and radar validation (cloud products), 4) vertical transport and mixing (tracer experiment), and 5) cloud formation over forested/deforested areas. Data were collected in near-pristine atmospheric conditions and in environments polluted by biomass burning and urban emissions. The paper presents a general introduction of the ACRIDICON– CHUVA campaign (motivation and addressed research topics) and of HALO with its extensive instrument package, as well as a presentation of a few selected measurement results acquired during the flights for some selected scientific topics.