Observations of Severe Local Storms and Tornadoes with the Atmospheric Imaging Radar

Kurdzo, James M. ; Nai, Feng ; Bodine, David J. ; Bonin, Timothy A. ; Palmer, Robert D. ; Cheong, Boon Leng ; Lujan, Javier ; Mahre, Andrew ; Byrd, Andrew D.

Année de publication

Mobile radar platforms designed for observation of severe local storms have consistently pushed the boundaries of spatial and temporal resolution in order to allow for detailed analysis of storm structure and evolution. Digital beamforming, or radar imaging, is a technique that is similar in nature to a photograwphic camera, where data samples from different spaces at the same range are collected simultaneously. This allows for rapid volumetric update rates compared to radars that scan with a single narrow beam. The Atmospheric Imaging Radar (AIR) is a mobile X-band (3.14-cm wavelength) imaging weather radar that transmits a vertical, 20° fan beam and uses a 36-element receive array to form instantaneous range-height indicators (RHIs) with a native beamwidth of 1° × 1°. Rotation in azimuth allows for 20° × 90° volumetric updates in under 6 s, while advanced pulse compression techniques achieve 37.5-m range resolution. The AIR has been operational since 2012 and has collected data on tornadoes and supercells at ranges as close as 6 km, resulting in high spatial and temporal resolution observations of severe local storms. The use of atmospheric imaging is exploited to detail rapidly evolving phenomena that are difficult to observe with traditional scanning weather radars.

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