A Meteorological Study of July to October 1588: The Spanish Armada Storms

Douglas, K. S. ; Lamb, H. H. ; Loader, C.

Auteur moral
Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia
Année de publication
The importance of the wind and weather sequence in the high summer and early autumn of 1588 to the history of the Armada's voyage, its ability to carry out its task and the heavy losses of ships it suffered, is briefly considered. This account is mainly concerned with establishing the facts of that weather sequence and a meteorological analysis of how it developed. One result of the analysis is to reveal that there seem to have been several spells of fine anticyclonic weather in England and (particularly) in central Europe, unlike conditions just farther west over the ocean, which were repeatedly stormy even as far south as the latitude of Portugal and the Azores, and to the north, where it must have been a notably cold summer in comparison with most modern experience. (Perhaps 1962 would provide an analogy as regards the latter aspect). Most meteorological interest attaches to the sequence as a sample daily circulation pattern analysis of a summer during the Little Ice Age period, when Arctic sea ice and the glaciers in Europe were in an advanced state and usually advancing. lt is also possible to include a quantitative assessment of some aspects of the wind circulation strength developed.
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