Evidence of new particle formation within Etna and Stromboli volcanic plumes and its parameterization from airborne in-situ measurements

Sahyoun, Maher ; Freney, Evelyn ; Brito, Joel ; Duplissy, Jonathan ; Gouhier, Mathieu ; Colomb, Aurélie ; Dupuy, Regis ; Bourianne, Thierry ; Nowak, John B. ; Yan, Chao ; Petäjä, Tuukka ; Kulmala, Markku ; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons ; Planche, Céline ; Sellegri, Karine

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Volcanic emissions can significantly affect the Earth's radiation budget by emitting aerosol particles and gas-phase species that can result in the new particle formation (NPF). These particles can scatter solar radiation or modify cloud properties, with consequences on health, weather, and climate. To our knowledge, this is the first dedicated study detailing how gas-phase precursors emitted from volcanic plumes can influence the NPF. A series of airborne measurements were performed around the Etna and Stromboli volcanoes within the framework of the CLerVolc and STRAP projects. The ATR-42 aircraft was equipped with a range of instrumentation allowing the measurement of particle number concentration in diameter range above 2.5 nm, and gaseous species to investigate the aerosol dynamics and the processes governing the NPF and their growth within the volcanic plumes. We demonstrate that NPF occurs within the volcanic plumes in the Free Troposphere (FT) and Boundary Layer (BL). Typically, the NPF events were more pronounced in the FT, where the condensational sink was up to two orders of magnitude smaller and the temperature was 20°C lower than in the BL. Within the passive volcanic plume, the concentration of sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, and N2.5 were as high as 92 ppbV, 5.65×108 and 2.4×105 cm-3, respectively. Using these measurements, we propose a new parameterization for NPF rate (J2.5) within the passive volcanic plume in the FT. These results can be incorporated into mesoscale models to better assess the impact of the particle formed by natural processes, i.e. volcanic plumes, on climate.
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