Description and evaluation of the tropospheric aerosol scheme in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS-AER, cycle 45R1)

Rémy, Samuel ; Kipling, Zak ; Flemming, Johannes ; Boucher, Olivier ; Nabat, Pierre ; Michou, Martine ; Bozzo, Alessio ; Ades, Melanie ; Huijnen, Vincent ; Benedetti, Angela ; Engelen, Richard ; Peuch, Vincent-Henri ; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques

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<p align=justify><strong>Abstract.</strong> This article describes the IFS-AER aerosol module used operationally in the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) cycle 45R1, operated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in the framework of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Services (CAMS). We describe the different parameterizations for aerosol sources, sinks, and its chemical production in IFS-AER, as well as how the aerosols are integrated in the larger atmospheric composition forecasting system. The focus is on the entire 45R1 code base, including some components that are not used operationally, in which case this will be clearly specified. This paper is an update to the <span class="cit" id="xref_text.1"><a href="#bib1.bibx72">Morcrette et al.</a> (<a href="#bib1.bibx72">2009</a>)</span> article that described aerosol forecasts at the ECMWF using cycle 32R2 of the IFS. Between cycles 32R2 and 45R1, a number of source and sink processes have been reviewed and/or added, notably increasing the complexity of IFS-AER. A greater integration with the tropospheric chemistry scheme of the IFS has been achieved for the sulfur cycle and for nitrate production. Two new species, nitrate and ammonium, have also been included in the forecasting system. Global budgets and aerosol optical depth (AOD) fields are shown, as is an evaluation of the simulated particulate matter (PM) and AOD against observations, showing an increase in skill from cycle 40R2, used in the CAMS interim ReAnalysis (CAMSiRA), to cycle 45R1.</p>
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