High-Resolution Observations of Transport and Exchange Processes in Mountainous Terrain

Emeis, Stefan ; Kalthoff, Norbert ; Adler, Bianca ; Pardyjak, Eric ; Paci, Alexandre ; Junkermann, Wolfgang

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<p align=justify>Mountainous areas require appropriate measurement strategies to cover the full spectrum of details concerning the energy exchange at the Earth's surface and to capture the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic fields over them. This includes the range from turbulence to mesoscale processes and its interaction. The surface energy balance needs appropriate measurement strategies as well. In this paper, we present an overview of important experiments performed over mountainous terrain and summarize the available techniques for flow and energy measurements in complex terrain. The description includes ground-based and airborne in situ observations as well as ground-based and airborne remote sensing (passive and active) observations. Emphasis is placed on systems which retrieve spatiotemporal information on mesoscale and smaller scales, fitting mountainous terrain research needs. Finally, we conclude with a short list summarizing challenges and gaps one faces when dealing with measurements over complex terrain.</p>
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