3D microstructure evolution of ice in jet A-1 fuel as a function of applied temperature over time

Haffar, Iheb ; Flin, Frédéric ; Geindreau, Christian ; Petillon, Nicolas ; Gervais, Pierre-Colin ; Edery, Vincent

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<p align=justify>Temperature () and time are key factors in both nucleation and evolution of ice crystals in jet fuels occurring inside aircraft fuel systems. In this study, we followed the morphological evolution of an ice agglomerate in jet A-1 fuel using a specific dynamic cryogenic cell (CellDyM). An in vivo experiment was conducted, imposing temperatures between −45 C and −5 C, while performing X-ray scans throughout the experiment. Then, image processing and analysis provided access to the morphological evolution of the ice sample, at a resolution of 7.5 m. Three types of analyses were mainly computed: (i) cumulative evolution of the microstructure as a function of temperature and time intervals, (ii) evolution of the ice microstructure for isothermal conditions and (iii) evolution of the microstructure for different temperature jumps. Overall, the effect of temperature is minor in the interval of [−45, −10] C, with evolution rates between 1.6 and 4.6 m.h, compared to the interval of [−10, −5] C, during which a significant change in the morphology of the ice agglomerate was observed, with an evolution rate of 10.4 m.h. This study illustrates the key values of the temperature ranges that influence the ice microstructure in jet fuel and brings new insights on the physical mechanisms potentially involved.</p>
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