Water vapor injection into the stratosphere by Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai

Injection de vapeur d'eau dans la stratosphère par Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai

Vömel, Holger ; Evan, Stéphanie ; Tully, Matt

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<p align="justify">Large volcanic eruptions, although rare events, can influence the chemistry and the dynamics of the stratosphere for several years after the eruption. Here we show that the eruption of the submarine volcano Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai on 15 January 2022 injected at least 50 teragrams of water vapor directly into the stratosphere. This event raised the amount of water vapor in the developing stratospheric plume by several orders of magnitude and possibly increased the amount of global stratospheric water vapor by more than 5%. This extraordinary eruption may have initiated an atmospheric response different from that of previous well-studied large volcanic eruptions.</p>
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