Electromagnetic conjugacy of ionospheric disturbances after the 2022 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcanic eruption as seen in GNSS-TEC and SuperDARN Hokkaido pair of radars observations

Shinbori, Atsuki ; Otsuka, Yuichi ; Sori, Takuya ; Nishioka, Michi ; Perwitasari, Septi ; Tsuda, Takuo ; Nishitani, Nozomu

Année de publication
<p align=justify>To elucidate the characteristics of electromagnetic conjugacy of traveling ionospheric disturbances just after the 15 January 2022 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcanic eruption, we analyze Global Navigation Satellite System-total electron content data and ionospheric plasma velocity data obtained from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network Hokkaido pair of radars. Further, we use thermal infrared grid data with high spatial resolution observed by the Himawari 8 satellite to identify lower atmospheric disturbances associated with surface air pressure waves propagating as a Lamb mode. After 07:30 UT on 15 January, two distinct traveling ionospheric disturbances propagating in the westward direction appeared in the Japanese sector with the same structure as those at magnetically conjugate points in the Southern Hemisphere. Corresponding to these traveling ionospheric disturbances with their large amplitude of 0.5 - 1.1 × 1016 el/m2 observed in the Southern Hemisphere, the plasma flow direction in the F region changed from southward to northward. At this time, the magnetically conjugate points in the Southern Hemisphere were located in the sunlit region at a height of 105 km. The amplitude and period of the plasma flow variation are ~ 100-110 m/s and ~ 36-38 min, respectively. From the plasma flow perturbation, a zonal electric field is estimated as ~ 2.8-3.1 mV/m. Further, there is a phase difference of ~ 10-12 min between the total electron content and plasma flow perturbations. This result suggests that the external electric field variation generates the traveling ionospheric disturbances observed in both Southern and Northern Hemispheres. The origin of the external electric field is an E-region dynamo driven by the neutral wind oscillation associated with atmospheric acoustic waves and gravity waves. Finally, the electric field propagates to the F region and magnetically conjugate ionosphere along magnetic field lines with the local Alfven speed, which is much faster than that of Lamb mode waves. From these observational facts, it can be concluded that the E-region dynamo electric field produced in the sunlit Southern Hemisphere is a main cause of the two distinct traveling ionospheric disturbances appearing over Japan before the arrival of the air pressure disturbances.</p>

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