Mediterranean cyclones: current knowledge and open questions on dynamics, prediction, climatology and impacts

Cyclones méditerranéens : connaissances actuelles et questions ouvertes sur la dynamique, la prévision, la climatologie et les impacts

Flaounas, Emmanouil ; Davolio, Silvio ; Raveh-Rubin, Shira ; Pantillon, Florian ; Miglietta, Mario Marcello ; Gaertner, Miguel Angel ; Hatzaki, Maria ; Homar, Victor ; Khodayar, Samira ; Korres, Gerasimos ; Kotroni, Vassiliki ; Kushta, Jonilda ; Reale, Marco ; Ricard, Didier

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<p align=justify>A large number of intense cyclones occur every year in the Mediterranean basin, one of the climate change hotspots. Producing a broad range of severe socio-economic and environmental impacts in such a densely populated region, Mediterranean cyclones call for coordinated and interdisciplinary research efforts. This article aims at supporting these efforts by reviewing the status of knowledge in the broad field of Mediterranean cyclones.</p> <p align=justify>First, we focus on the climatology of Mediterranean cyclone tracks, their relationship to large-scale atmospheric circulation and their future trends. Second, we discuss the dynamics and atmospheric processes that govern the genesis and development of Mediterranean cyclones. Then, we present the different subtypes of Mediterranean cyclones, devoting special attention to medicanes, i.e. cyclones with tropical characteristics and subjects of numerous recent studies. In a subsequent section, we review the state of the art in forecasting cyclones and relevant high-impact weather, and we discuss in detail the challenges and recent efforts to increase their forecast skill. Finally, we discuss the main impacts produced by cyclones, namely heavy precipitation, windstorms, dust transport, storm surges and sea wave extremes.</p> <p align=justify>In the last section of this review article, we thoroughly outline the future directions of research that would advance the broader field of Mediterranean cyclones.</p>
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