Soil Moisture Monitoring at Kilometer Scale: Assimilation of Sentinel-1 Products in ISBA

Rojas-Munoz, Oscar ; Calvet, Jean-Christophe ; Bonan, Bertrand ; Baghdadi, Nicolas ; Meurey, Catherine ; Napoly, Adrien ; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre ; Zribi, Mehrez

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<p align=justify>Observed by satellites for more than a decade, surface soil moisture (SSM) is an essential component of the Earth system. Today, with the Sentinel missions, SSM can be derived at a sub-kilometer spatial resolution. In this work, aggregated 1 km × 1 km SSM observations combining Sentinel-1 (S1) and Sentinel-2 (S2) data are assimilated for the first time into the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model using the global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS-Monde) tool of Meteo-France. The ISBA simulations are driven by atmospheric variables from the Application of Research to Operations at Mesoscale (AROME) numerical weather prediction model for the period 2017-2019 for two regions in Southern France, Toulouse and Montpellier, and for the Salamanca region in Spain. The S1 SSM shows a good agreement with in situ SSM observations. The S1 SSM is assimilated either alone or together with leaf area index (LAI) observations from the PROBA-V satellite. The assimilation of S1 SSM alone has a small impact on the simulated root zone soil moisture. On the other hand, a marked impact of the assimilation is observed over agricultural areas when LAI is assimilated, and the impact is larger when S1 SSM and LAI are assimilated together.</p>
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