Radiance Simulations in Support of Climate Services

Poli, P. ; Roebeling, R. ; John, V. O. ; Doutriaux-Boucher, M. ; Schulz, J. ; Lattanzio, A. ; Petraityte, K. ; Grant, M. ; Hanschmann, T. ; Onderwaater, J. ; Sus, O. ; Huckle, R. ; Coppens, D. ; Theodore, B. ; August, T. ; Simmons, A. J. ; Bell, B. ; Mittaz, J. ; Hall, T. ; Vidot, Jérôme ; Brunel, Pascal ; Johnson, J. E. ; Zamkoff, E. B. ; Al-Jazrawi, A. F. ; Esfandiari, A. E. ; Gerasimov, I. V. ; Kobayashi, S.

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<p align=justify>Climate services are largely supported by climate reanalyses and by satellite Fundamental (Climate) Data Records (F(C)DRs). This paper demonstrates how the development and the uptake of F(C)DR benefit from radiance simulations, using reanalyses and radiative transfer models. We identify three classes of applications, with examples for each application class. The first application is to validate assumptions during F(C)DR development. Hereto we show the value of applying advanced quality controls to geostationary European (Meteosat) images. We also show the value of a cloud mask to study the spatio-temporal coherence of the impact of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption between Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) data. The second application is to assess the coherence between reanalyses and observations. Hereto we show the capability of reanalyses to reconstruct spectra observed by the Spektrometer Interferometer (SI-1) flown on a Soviet satellite in 1979. We also present a first attempt to estimate the random uncertainties from this instrument. Finally, we investigate how advanced bias correction can help to improve the coherence between reanalysis and Nimbus-3 Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) in 1969. The third application is to inform F(C)DR users about particular quality aspects. We show how simulations can help to make a better-informed use of the corresponding F(C)DR, taking as examples the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) imager, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Water Vapor Profiler (SSM/T-2).</p>
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