Role of thermodynamic and turbulence processes on the fog life cycle during SOFOG3D experiment

Dione, Cheikh ; Haeffelin, Martial ; Burnet, Frédéric ; Lac, Christine ; Canut, Guylaine ; Delanoë, Julien ; Dupont, Jean-Charles ; Jorquera, Susana ; Martinet, Pauline ; Ribaud, Jean-François ; Toledo, Felipe

Année de publication
2023
Résumé
<p align=justify>In this study, we use a synergy of in situ and remote sensing measurements collected during the SOuthwest FOGs 3D experiment for processes study (SOFOG3D) field campaign in autumn and winter 2019-2020 to analyse the thermodynamic and turbulent processes related to fog formation, evolution, and dissipation across southwestern France. Based on a unique measurement dataset (synergy of cloud radar, microwave radiometer, wind lidar, and weather station data) combined with a fog conceptual model, an analysis of the four deepest fog episodes (two radiation fogs and two advection-radiation fogs) is conducted. The results show that radiation and advection-radiation fogs form under deep and thin temperature inversions, respectively. For both fog categories, the transition period from stable to adiabatic fog and the fog adiabatic phase are driven by vertical mixing associated with an increase in turbulence in the fog layer due to mechanical production (turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) up to 0.4 m<span class="inline-formula"><sup>2</sup></span> s<span class="inline-formula"><sup>-2</sup></span> and vertical velocity variance (<span class="inline-formula"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" id="M3" display="inline" overflow="scroll" dspmath="mathml"><mrow><msubsup><mi mathvariant="italic">σ</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">w</mi><mn mathvariant="normal">2</mn></msubsup></mrow></math><span><svg:svg xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="14pt" height="16pt" class="svg-formula" dspmath="mathimg" md5hash="b9fd95b38c7aa6b5b9a42cf7819eea5d"><svg:image xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="acp-23-15711-2023-ie00001.svg" width="14pt" height="16pt" src="acp-23-15711-2023-ie00001.png"/></svg:svg></span></span>) up to 0.04 m<span class="inline-formula"><sup>2</sup></span> s<span class="inline-formula"><sup>-2</sup></span>) generated by increasing wind and wind shear. Our study reveals that fog liquid water path, fog top height, temperature, radar reflectivity profiles, and fog adiabaticity derived from the conceptual model evolve in a consistent manner to clearly characterise this transition. The dissipation time is observed at night for the advection-radiation fog case studies and after sunrise for the radiation fog case studies. Night-time dissipation is driven by horizontal advection generating mechanical turbulence (TKE at least 0.3 m<span class="inline-formula"><sup>2</sup></span> s<span class="inline-formula"><sup>-2</sup></span> and <span class="inline-formula"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" id="M8" display="inline" overflow="scroll" dspmath="mathml"><mrow><msubsup><mi mathvariant="italic">σ</mi><mi mathvariant="normal">w</mi><mn mathvariant="normal">2</mn></msubsup></mrow></math><span><svg:svg xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="14pt" height="16pt" class="svg-formula" dspmath="mathimg" md5hash="030697b1035571346865bfc1b8041e5e"><svg:image xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="acp-23-15711-2023-ie00002.svg" width="14pt" height="16pt" src="acp-23-15711-2023-ie00002.png"/></svg:svg></span></span> larger than 0.04 m<span class="inline-formula"><sup>2</sup></span> s<span class="inline-formula"><sup>-2</sup></span>). Daytime dissipation is linked to the combination of thermal and mechanical turbulence related to solar heating (near-surface sensible heat flux larger than 10 W m<span class="inline-formula"><sup>-2</sup></span>) and wind shear, respectively. This study demonstrates the added value of monitoring fog liquid water content and depth (combined with wind, turbulence, and temperature profiles) and diagnostics such as fog liquid water reservoir and adiabaticity to better explain the drivers of the fog life cycle.</p>
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